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ANDROMEDA - Andromeda - And

Date & Time
Angular separation Alpheratz - Almaak = 27°
Click on a star name for more informations        
NameMagn.Dist. (L.Y.)Temp.°KC.TypeGreekConst.
Alpheratz2.0610212.400 B8AlphaAnd
Mirak2.061703.400 M0BetaAnd
Almaak2.26424.440 K3GammaAnd
Adhil4.881254.800 K0XiAnd
M31 - NGC224 - Magn. 4.4 - Dist. 2.380.000 l.y.
The Andromeda Galaxy is a giant spiral galaxy similar in form to our own galaxy but perhaps twice as massive. Deep observations show that the galaxy disk extends at least 4.5 degrees in length. The proximity of Andromeda has alloved detailed study which has given us much of our understanding of galactic rotation, stellar evolution and distance scales.
Andromeda Galaxy is visible to the naked eye and its feeble light was noted by persian astronomer Al Sufi about year 1000. It appears in a celestial chart in year 1609, before the discovery of the telescope. It was acknowledged as a galaxy in 1923.
Andromeda Galaxy has a well definite spiral structure whose diameter is about 180.000 l.y. (100.000 our galaxy). The dense core conteins almost only very old stars and the arms young giant blue stars instead.
M31 is the "leader" of the "local group" whose belongs our galaxy too.
andromeda galaxy 
M 31 - The Andromeda Galaxy
M 110 
M 110 - NGC 205
Elliptical Galaxy
Magn. 8.9
Dist. 2.380.000 l.y.
Satellite of M 31

PERSEUS - Perseus - Per

Date & Time
Angular separation Miram - Atiks = 26°
Click on a star name for more informations        
NameMagn.Dist. (L.Y.)Temp.°KC.TypeGreekConst.
Mirphak1.796306.600 F5AlphaPer
Algol2.127212.400 B8BetaPer
Gorgonea III3.395002.920 M4RhoPer
Miram3.765404.440 K3EtaPer
Misam3.80994.800 K0KappaPer
Atiks3.8314225.600 B1OmicronPer
Menkhib4.0482035.200 O7XiPer
Gorgonea IV4.631424.680 K1OmegaPer
Gorgonea II4.703609.360 A2PiPer
NGC 884 - Magn. 4.4 - Dist. 7.200 l.y. - Half of Double Cluster
NGC 869 - Magn. 4.3 - Dist. 7.200 l.y. - Half of Double Cluster
californianeb caligraf
The California Nebula
Bright Nebula
Magn. 4.0
Illuminated by Menkhib, Xi Persei

PEGASUS - Pegasus - Peg

Date & Time
Angular separation Enif - Algenib = 37°
Click on a star name for more informations        
NameMagn.Dist. (L.Y.)Temp.°KC.TypeGreekConst.
Enif2.394704.560 K2EpsilonPeg
Scheat2.422333.160 M2BetaPeg
Markab2.497411.200 B9AlphaPeg
Algenib2.8349023.200 B2GammaPeg
Matar2.943305.800 G2EtaPeg
Homam3.4014012.400 B8ZetaPeg
Sadalbari3.481405.80 G8MuPeg
Baham3.53829.360 A2ThetaPeg
Kerb4.60888.400 A5TauPeg
M15 - NGC7078
Globular Cluster
Magn. 6.4 - Dist. 30.600 l.y.
M15 is one of the most densely packed globular star clusters in our Milky Way Galaxy. This stunning Hubble Space Telescope image of M15 shows thousands of individual stars across the central 10 or so light-years of the cluster. Yet even the Hubble's sharp vision can't clearly separate the stars at this cluster's core. Globular star clusters harbor from a hundred thousand up to a million stars. Like most globulars, M15 is filled with ancient stars, about 12 billion years old. Its cool red giant stars appear yellowish in this color composite image. Unlike most globulars, M15 displays a planetary nebula, the briefly visible gaseous shroud of a dying star. Can you pick it out? Cataloged as Kuestner 648, M15's planetary nebula is the round pinkish cloud at the upper left.
Supergiant Spiral Galaxy
Magn. 10.3
Dist. 48.9 millions l.y.

ARIES - The Ram - Ari

Date & Time
Angular separation Mesarthim - 41 Ari = 15°

Click on a star name for more informations        
NameMagn.Dist. (L.Y.)Temp.°KC.TypeGreekConst.
Hamal2.00784.560 K2AlphaAri
Sharatan2.64448.400 A5BetaAri
Botein4.351214.560 K2DeltaAri
Mesarthim4.751259.680 A1Gamma 2Ari

CETUS- the Whale - Cet

Date & Time
Angular separation Menkar - Shemali = 42°
Click on a star name for more informations        
NameMagn.Dist. (L.Y.)Temp.°KC.TypeGreekConst.
Deneb Kaitos2.04534.940 G9BetaCet
Menkar2.532003.280 M1AlphaCet
Mira3.042002.640 M7OmicronCet
Kaffaljidhma3.47639.040 A3GammaCet
Shemali3.562514.680 K1IotaCet
Baten Kaitos3.731054.800 K0ZetaCet
m77M 77 - NGC 1068
Spiral Galaxy - Magn. 9.5
Dist. 81.5 mill. l.y.

This magnificient galaxy is one of the biggest galaxies in Messier's catalog, its bright part measuring about 120,000 light years, but its faint extensions going perhaps out to nearly 170,000 light years. M77 is about 80 million light years distant, and is receding from us at about 1100 km/sec; it was the second galaxy with a large measured redshift after the Sombrero galaxy, M104: the higher values would make M77 the most remote Messier object).

This galaxy is unique and peculiar because of several reasons. First of all, its spectrum shows peculiar features in the form of broad emission lines, indicating that giant gas clouds are rapidly moving out of this galaxy's core, at several 100 km/sec. Hubble classifies M77 as a Seyfert galaxy of type II (type I Seyfert galaxies exhibit an even larger expansion velocity of several 1000 km/sec); it is the nearest and brightest representative of this class of active galaxies.
An enormous energy source is required to generate this velocity, which must sit in the galaxy's core or nucleus. This core was found to be a strong radio source (which was designated Cetus A). The hypothesis is that the active nuclei of Seyfert galaxies might be thought of as miniature quasars (quasi-stellar radio sources). In case of M77, the central object which is responsible for the Seyfert activity has been found to have a mass of about 10 million solar masses and was found a giant disk of some 5 light-years diameter orbiting this object.
In the inner disk of M77 surrounding the active nucleus, intense star forming activity. These star formation regions are among the brightest known, and perhaps the most luminous within a distance of 100 million light years from us.

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Constellation pictures are modified screen displaies of Voyager II™ version 2.0 for the Macintosh™, the Astronomy Program of Carina Software, 12919 Alcosta Blvd Suite #7, San Ramon, CA 94583

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